130. Soweto Gospel Choir was invited to perform at the Memorial Service for Nelson Mandela at Westminster Abbey on 3 March. 6. A brief history of key events that shaped Johannesburg. “Incidentally, the name Soweto was officially endorsed by the municipal authorities only in 1963 after a special committee had sat for a long time, considering various names, including apartheid Townships and Verwoerdstad" (Gorodnov 1998:58). The aliens are housed in shacks in a slum-like concentration camp called "District 9", which is in fact modern-day Soweto; an attempt to relocate the aliens to another camp leads to violence and a wholesale slaughter by South African mercenary security forces (a reference to historical events in "District Six", Cape Town, a mostly Coloured neighborhood subjected to forced segregation during the apartheid years). The total number also depends on whether the various "extensions" and "zones" are counted separately, or as part of one main suburb. The committee believes that the South African government's privatization drives will worsen the situation. The three-night festival is hosted at the University of Johannesburg's Soweto Campus on Chris Hani Road in the first weekend of September. About Mandela House Museum.  Previously the townships were governed by the Johannesburg council, but from the 1970s the state took control..  The result was that many landless Dutch-speaking burghers (citizens) of the ZAR settled on the property and started making bricks. People responded to this competition with great enthusiasm. A cluster of townships sprawling across a vast area 20 kilometres south-west of Johannesburg, Soweto was, from the start, a product of segregationist planning. Research showed that 62% of residents in Orlando East and Pimville were unemployed or pensioners.. The township was named after the chairman of the Native Affairs committee, Mr. Edwin Orlando Leake. In terms of this Act the central government appointed the West Rand Administration Board to take over the powers and obligations of the Johannesburg City Council in respect of Soweto. Following the election of the new government, some 7,000 new houses were built in the first two or three years, but very little was done thereafter. This was carried out using the infamous Urban Areas Act of 1923. The line, "While every mother in a black Soweto fears the killing of another son", refers to police brutality during apartheid.  A year after his arrival in Orlando he formed his own political party, the Sofasonke Party. The Soweto Uprising, also known as 16 June, is a series of protests led by high school students in South Africa that began on the morning of 16 June 1976. Museums document happenings during the apartheid regime. James Mpanza and the Sofasonke Party in the development of local politics in Soweto by Kevin John French, 1983, Message by Oliver Tambo to the Soweto rally to welcome released leaders, 29 October 1989. The name Soweto was first used in 1963 and within a short period of time, following the 1976 uprising of students in the township, the name became internationally known..  In 1954 the City Council built 5,100 houses in Jabavu and 1,450 in Mofolo.. Sir Ernest Oppenheimer arranged a loan of £3 million from the mining industry, which allowed an additional 14,000 houses to be built. Racial segregation and the supremacy of whites had been traditionally accepted in South Africa prior to 1948, but in the general election of that year, Daniel F. Malan officially included the policy of apartheid in the Afrikaner Nationalist party platform, bringing his party to power for the first time. As the state forbade public gatherings, church buildings like Regina Mundi were sometimes used for political gatherings. They also erected their shacks there. In 1885, the gold rush was in full swing, prospectors from all over flocked to the newly found gold fields in search of their fortune, either to stake a claim directly or to offer their labour. Dr. Alban's song "Free Up Soweto" was included in the album Look Who's Talking (1994). Few pictures of Soweto are stored in the Pretoria archives in contrast to the wealth of photographs of Johannesburg, researcher Lauren Segal found when she was working on a history of Soweto. da Silva, M & Pirie, G.H. Orlando is a township in the urban area of Soweto, South Africa. , In 1994 Sowetans earned on average almost six and a half times less than their counterparts in wealthier areas of Johannesburg (1994 estimates).  The City Council's resistance crumbled. Soweto is mentioned in the song "Burden of Shame" by the British band UB40, on their album Signing off (1980). David Grinker, Inside Soweto: Memoir of an Official 1960s to 80s, Eastern Enterprises, 2014, p. xii. It is divided in two main areas: Orlando West and Orlando East . Soweto is home to football clubs Kaizer Chiefs and Moroka Swallows. June 16, 2016, marks the 40th anniversary of the Soweto Uprising (also called the Soweto Rebellion) in South Africa. In response, the apartheid state started providing electricity to more Soweto homes, yet phased out financial support for building additional housing. The UK music duo Mattafix have a song called "Memories Of Soweto" on their album Rhythm & Hymns (2007). In the Zuid-Afrikaansche Republiek and the subsequent Transvaal Colony it was lawful for people of colour to own fixed property. John R Shorten, The Saga of Johannesburg, John R Shorten (Pty) Limited, Johannesburg, 1970, p. 240. The area is mostly composed of old "matchbox" houses, or four-room houses built by the government, that were built to provide cheap accommodation for black workers during apartheid. Soweto itself is not a unitary place but an abbreviation for So uth We stern To wnships, a collection of over 25 townships bordering Johannesburg’s mining belt to the south, which range from middle-class enclaves to informal settlements (sometimes known as shantytowns). Beforehand most of the Africans living there were moved far out of town to the farm Klipspruit (later called Pimville), south-west of Johannesburg, where the council had erected iron barracks and a few triangular hutments. Soweto TV, a community TV channel, offers local news to residents, while the township’s newspaper, “The Sowetan,” has a readership of more than 1.6 million. Magubane, Zine. Labour was drawn from many parts of Southern Africa and this was the origin of the diversity of cultures. Cammack, supra, p. 9. Soweto, the melting pot of different cultures offers insight into South Africa's history and politics. 21 of 1923). , The restrictions on economic activities were lifted in 1977, spurring the growth of the taxi industry as an alternative to Soweto's inadequate bus and train transport systems. The American film Stander (2003) portrays the story of Andre Stander, a rogue police captain who sympathised with the state of apartheid and its corruption by becoming a bank thief. It was back in 1904 that Klipspruit, the oldest of a cluster of townships that constitute present day Soweto, was established. Clarence Carter has a song called "The Girl From Soweto" or "Where did the girl go, from Soweto". "Soweto" is the title of the opening track of the album Joined at the Hip, by Bob James and Kirk Whalum. This page was last edited on 17 January 2021, at 17:06. PUTCO has for many years provided bus commuter services to Soweto residents. Black African councilors were not provided by the apartheid state with the finances to address housing and infrastructural problems. Soweto's famous 'Orlando Towers' Image source. There is efficient road access for many parts of the region along busy highways to the CBD and Roodepoort, but commuters are largely reliant on trains and taxis. According to wiredspace, 44 the name Soweto was officially endorsed by the municipalities’ authorities only in 1963 after a special committee had considered various names. The rioting continued and 23 people died on the first day in Soweto, 21 of whom were black, including the minor Hector Pieterson, as well as two white people, including Dr Melville Edelstein, a lifelong humanitarian. Download variables like temperature, wind, clouds and precipitation as CSV for any place on Earth. ©Andile Bhala.  The Soweto Electricity Crisis Committee argues that Soweto's poor are unable to pay for electricity. The rest of them had to build their own shacks. 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